The investigation, diagnosis and treatment of coagulation disorders of the blood which can give rise to bleeding (haemorrhage) on the one hand and thrombosis (clotting) on the other, is a critical balance which must be maintained if individuals are to enjoy a healthy lifestyle. This vital body parameter is termed Haemostasis. 

Thrombosis can be caused by a defect in blood flow, damage to blood vessels and deficiencies or reduced functionality of blood components. 

The recently introduced Total Thrombus-Formation Analysis System (T-TAS), is a microchip-based flow chamber system designed to evaluate thrombogenicity in whole blood. It has been developed as an easy-to-use system for quantitative analysis of thrombus formation. The system allows the quick and easy assessment of platelet thrombus development under physiological flow conditions which approximates to thrombus formation in vivo. 

Measurement of thrombogenicity by T-TAS in the automated microchip-based flow chamber analyses different thrombus formation processes using a simple procedure comprising two microchips with different thrombogenic surfaces; a platelet (PL) chip specific for measuring primary haemostatic ability and an atheroma (AR) chip for measuring fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation. 

The PL chip is coated with type I collagen, and platelets adhere via von Willebrand factor (vWF) to the surface of the collagen and aggregate inside the microchip, leading to occlusion of the microchip capillaries. 

The AR chip is coated with type I collagen plus tissue thromboplastin, which simultaneously activates platelets and the coagulation system respectively inside the microchip. 

The process of thrombus formation inside the chips can be analysed by monitoring the change in flow pressure. The area under curve (AUC) flow pressure is measured to assess the thrombogenicity inside the microchips. The AUC measurement over 10 minutes is made for the PL chip and the AUC over 30 minutes assessed for the AR chip. 

T-TAS can be used to assess the influence of antithrombotic agents on platelet activation and coagulation reactions over the collagen or

collagen/tissue thromboplastin-coated surface so that the antithrombotic effectiveness of antithrombotic agents can be assessed in patients presenting with cardiovascular disease.  

Both arterial and venous thrombosis play a primary role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular conditions, and several pharmacological agents are clinically used to inhibit the process of thrombus formation. Antiplatelet agents represent the main preventive strategy against systemic arterial thrombosis, as platelets play a crucial role in initiating thrombus formation. 

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) using aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor e.g. Clopidogrel (Plavix®)* is a widely used approach to control platelet activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The T-TAS PL chip flow pressure AUC accurately assesses primary haemostasis and is sensitive to the therapeutic effects of various antiplatelet therapies. 

Anticoagulant drugs are widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis. Warfarin and the Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used for the prevention or treatment of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). 

The T-TAS AR chip AUC result, is useful for assessing the efficacy of DOACs and warfarin in AF patients to avoid the occurrence of thrombosis and prevent bleeding. T-TAS offers a useful index for evaluating the total antithrombotic effects of combination antithrombotic agents in patients with various cardiovascular diseases.  

More information can be found here https://www.hartbio.co.uk/products/t-tas/t-tas-01-total-thrombus-formation-analysis-system#product_top. To talk to us further about the system please contact us at sales@hartbio.co.uk

*Plavix®is a registered trademark of sanofi-aventis.